Born in Italy in the year 2005 at the Ivrea Interaction Design Institute, Arduino, a board based on open source microcontroller, was designed for the purpose of fast prototyping. It was designed for students without any background in electronics or programming.
The Arduino language uses C/C++ syntax and includes a set of C/C++ methods which can be called from your sketch code. Details of these methods and other aspects of the language can be found here: Arduino Language Reference.
Additional libraries can also be installed as required. Information about Arduino libraries and how to install them can be found on the following page: Arduino Libraries Guide